Site-to-Site VPN: Static vs Dynamic Routing

Last Updated : 10-Oct-2020

The type of routing that you select can depend on the make and model of your customer gateway device. If your customer gateway device supports Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), specify dynamic routing when you configure your Site-to-Site VPN connection, since the BGP protocol offers robust liveness detection checks that can assist failover to the second VPN tunnel if the first tunnel goes down. If your customer gateway device does not support BGP, specify static routing.

If you use a device that supports BGP advertising, you don’t specify static routes to the Site-to-Site VPN connection because the device uses BGP to advertise its routes to the virtual private gateway. If you use a device that doesn’t support BGP advertising, you must select static routing and enter the routes (IP prefixes) for your network that should be communicated to the virtual private gateway.

You must configure your customer gateway device to route traffic from your on-premises network to the Site-to-Site VPN connection.

Route tables and VPN route priority

Route tables determine where network traffic from your VPC is directed. In your VPC route table, you must add a route for your remote network and specify the virtual private gateway as the target. This enables traffic from your VPC that’s destined for your remote network to route via the virtual private gateway and over one of the VPN tunnels. You can enable route propagation for your route table to automatically propagate your network routes to the table for you.

  • If propagated routes from a Site-to-Site VPN connection or AWS Direct Connect connection overlap with the local route for your VPC, the local route is most preferred even if the propagated routes are more specific.
  • If propagated routes from a Site-to-Site VPN connection or AWS Direct Connect connection have the same destination CIDR block as other existing static routes (longest prefix match cannot be applied), we prioritize the static routes whose targets are
    1. an internet gateway,
    2. a virtual private gateway,
    3. a network interface,
    4. an instance ID,
    5. a VPC peering connection,
    6. a NAT gateway,
    7. a transit gateway, or
    8. a gateway VPC endpoint.

For example, the following route table has a static route to an internet gateway, and a propagated route to a virtual private gateway. Both routes have a destination of In this case, all traffic destined for is routed to the internet gateway — it is a static route and therefore takes priority over the propagated route.

Destination Target Local vgw-11223344556677889 (propagated) igw-12345678901234567 (static)
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